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August 11, 2016 0 Comments
pH is a logarithmic measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous solution:
pH = -log[H+]
where log is the base 10 logarithm and [H+] is the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter
pH describes how acidic or basic an aqueous solution is, where a pH below 7 is acidic and a pH greater than 7 is basic. pH of 7 is considered neutral (e.g., pure water). Typically, values of pH range from 0 to 14, although very strong acids may have a negative pH, while very strong bases may have a pH exceeding 14.
The term "pH" was first described by Danish biochemist Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen in 1909. pH is an abbreviation for "power of hydrogen" where "p" is short for the German word for power, potenz and H is the element symbol for hydrogen.
Why pH Measurements Are Important
Chemicals reactions in water are affected by the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. This is important not only in the chemistry lab, but in industry, cooking, and medicine.
pH is carefully regulated in human cells and blood. The normal pH range for blood is between 7.35 and 7.45. Variation by even a tenth of a pH unit may be fatal. Soil pH is important for crop germination and growth. Acid rain caused by natural and man-made pollutants changes the acidity of soil and water, greatly affecting living organisms and other processes. In cooking, pH changes are used in baking and brewing. Since many reactions in everyday life are affected by pH, it's useful to know how to calculate and measure it.
There are multiple methods of measuring pH.
Extremely acidic and basic solutions may be encountered in laboratory situations. Mining is another example of a situation that may produce unusually acidic aqueous solutions. Special techniques must be used to measure extreme pH values below 2.5 and above around 10.5 because the Nernst law isn't accurate under these conditions when glass electrodes are used. Ionic strength variation affects electrode potentials. Special electrodes may be used, otherwise it's important to remember pH measurements won't be as accurate as those taken in ordinary solutions.
Read more at http://chemistry.about.com/od/ph/a/Ph-Measurements.htm
April 28, 2021 0 Comments
Most people have heard of ozone thanks to media coverage about pollution and the ozone layer. But for many, that is where their knowledge ends. The first thing you should tell a homeowner is that ozone is nothing more than O3—three oxygen atoms bound together.
That extra oxygen atom wants to hook up with other material, like unwanted microorganisms in water filtration systems. For the purpose of disinfecting water, ozone comes in contact with contaminants and pathogens that can damage equipment and get in the water supply. The extra oxygen atom oxidizes the contaminant and the O3 becomes O2—just plain old oxygen.
April 28, 2021 0 Comments
It was shown that after 30 seconds of in vitro direct exposure to ozone, 99 percent of the viruses are inactivated. Although this evidence is of considerable importance, outside of the laboratory models, there are various parameters that influence the time required to obtain the same result. First of all, it was seen that the inactivation of 99% of viruses by ozonation requires its spread at concentrations higher than those necessary for the bacteria. A longer exposure time, about 30 minutes, is necessary for the treatment of the surfaces of the environment (surface viruses), while for any viral particles suspended in the air (airborne viruses) 8-10 minutes are enough to remove 99.9% of them. Viruses in water are more susceptible to ozone inactivation and short contact time, about 1 min or little more, are sufficient to inactivate 99% of them.
April 27, 2021 0 Comments
A positive displacement pump moves a fluid by repeatedly enclosing a fixed volume, with the aid of seals or valves, and moving it mechanically through the system. The pumping action is cyclic and can be driven by pistons, screws, gears, lobes, diaphragms or vanes. There are two main types: reciprocating and rotary.Positive displacement pumps are preferred for applications involving highly viscous fluids such as thick oils and slurries, especially at high pressures, for complex feeds such as emulsions, foodstuffs or biological fluids, and also when accurate dosing is required.