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November 16, 2016 0 Comments
Cooling towers dissipate heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air conditioners, or other process equipment to the ambient air. Heat is rejected to the environment from cooling towers through the process of evaporation. Therefore, by design, cooling towers use significant amounts of water.
The thermal efficiency and longevity of the cooling tower and equipment depend on the proper management of recirculated water. Water leaves a cooling tower system in one of four ways.
The sum of water that is lost from the tower must be replaced by make-up water:
Make-Up = Evaporation + Blowdown + Drift
A key parameter used to evaluate cooling tower operation is "cycle of concentration" (sometimes referred to as cycle or concentration ratio). This is determined by calculating the ratio of the concentration of dissolved solids in the blowdown water compared to the make-up water. Because dissolved solids enter the system in the make-up water and exit the system in the blowdown water, the cycles of concentration are also approximately equal to the ratio of volume of make-up to blowdown water.
From a water efficiency standpoint, you want to maximize cycles of concentration. This will minimize blowdown water quantity and reduce make-up water demand. However, this can only be done within the constraints of your make-up water and cooling tower water chemistry. Dissolved solids increase as cycles of concentration increase, which can cause scale and corrosion problems unless carefully controlled.
In addition to carefully controlling blowdown, other water efficiency opportunities arise from using alternate sources of make-up water. Water from other facility equipment can sometimes be recycled and reused for cooling tower make-up with little or no pre-treatment, including:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) WaterSense at Work cooling towers best management practice.
Operation and Maintenance
To maintain water efficiency in operations and maintenance, federal agencies should:
April 28, 2021 0 Comments
Most people have heard of ozone thanks to media coverage about pollution and the ozone layer. But for many, that is where their knowledge ends. The first thing you should tell a homeowner is that ozone is nothing more than O3—three oxygen atoms bound together.
That extra oxygen atom wants to hook up with other material, like unwanted microorganisms in water filtration systems. For the purpose of disinfecting water, ozone comes in contact with contaminants and pathogens that can damage equipment and get in the water supply. The extra oxygen atom oxidizes the contaminant and the O3 becomes O2—just plain old oxygen.
April 28, 2021 0 Comments
It was shown that after 30 seconds of in vitro direct exposure to ozone, 99 percent of the viruses are inactivated. Although this evidence is of considerable importance, outside of the laboratory models, there are various parameters that influence the time required to obtain the same result. First of all, it was seen that the inactivation of 99% of viruses by ozonation requires its spread at concentrations higher than those necessary for the bacteria. A longer exposure time, about 30 minutes, is necessary for the treatment of the surfaces of the environment (surface viruses), while for any viral particles suspended in the air (airborne viruses) 8-10 minutes are enough to remove 99.9% of them. Viruses in water are more susceptible to ozone inactivation and short contact time, about 1 min or little more, are sufficient to inactivate 99% of them.
April 27, 2021 0 Comments
A positive displacement pump moves a fluid by repeatedly enclosing a fixed volume, with the aid of seals or valves, and moving it mechanically through the system. The pumping action is cyclic and can be driven by pistons, screws, gears, lobes, diaphragms or vanes. There are two main types: reciprocating and rotary.Positive displacement pumps are preferred for applications involving highly viscous fluids such as thick oils and slurries, especially at high pressures, for complex feeds such as emulsions, foodstuffs or biological fluids, and also when accurate dosing is required.