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December 06, 2016 0 Comments
Chloramination is often used as a disinfectant method when there is a large distribution network, as it provides a more prolonged disinfection compared to free chlorine.
Chloramines are usually formed by adding ammonia to water containing free chlorine (HOCl- or OCl-, depending on the pH) in a particular ratio (usually chlorine:ammonia 5:1). When the reaction takes place, three kinds of inorganic chloramines can be formed; monochloramine; dichloramine and trichloramine. Which form is predominant within the solution is dependent on the chlorine:ammonia ratio, the pH of the solution and the contact time. The ideal pH value for the production of monochloramines in this reaction is 8.4.
Traditionally, DPD (N,N Diethyl-1,4 Phenylenediamine) chemistry has been used to monitor free chlorine and chloramines. This can lead to confusion within the distribution network as the DPD method for determining free chlorine can suffer interference from monochloramine. This is known as 'breakthrough' and is when monochloramine breaks into the free chlorine fraction. The rate of breakthrough is affected by pH and temperature and is often witnessed as a slow increase in the free chlorine value, whilst not affecting the total chlorine reading.
At Palintest, DPD tablets are controlled so that they do not suffer excessive breakthrough when testing chloramine solutions, however some interference (<5%) still exists. The utility used an online monitoring system based on the DPD colorimetric method and frequently found fluctuations in their free chlorine measurements, which they suspected were related to breakthrough.
The ChloroSense instrument uses a patented electrochemical method known as chronoamperometry, combining an instrument and disposable sensors for the simultaneous measurement of free and total chlorine. When the sensor is immersed in the test solution, chlorine will react with the reagents on the free chlorine electrode and chlorine and chloramines (total chlorine) will react with the reagents on the total chlorine electrode.
The ChloroSense was used alongside a DPD colorimetric on-line system on an hourly basis over two days within their distribution network, to determine the performance of two methods in the chloraminated water.
The graph shown below demonstrates that both the ChloroSense and the online DPD based method gave similar total chlorine readings across the test period around the expected 1.5 mg/L dose.
With high levels of ammonium (NH4) and free chlorine being dosed into the network, the utility expected to see a low free chlorine residual and a total chlorine response of approximately 1.5 mg/L. The on-line DPD method struggles to monitor the free chlorine residual accurately whilst performing well when testing total chlorine.
The ChloroSense results show that breakthrough is not an issue with the chemistry used on the sensor. Free chlorine residuals are monitored as below 0.05mg/l over the two day testing period. The total chlorine results show the ChloroSense matches on the on-line analyser.
In summary, for applications where chloramination is being used, using DPD chemistry to monitor free chlorine residuals can be difficult - a skilled operator is called for. For applications where breakthrough is an issue, ChloroSense can provide the solution.
April 28, 2021 0 Comments
Most people have heard of ozone thanks to media coverage about pollution and the ozone layer. But for many, that is where their knowledge ends. The first thing you should tell a homeowner is that ozone is nothing more than O3—three oxygen atoms bound together.
That extra oxygen atom wants to hook up with other material, like unwanted microorganisms in water filtration systems. For the purpose of disinfecting water, ozone comes in contact with contaminants and pathogens that can damage equipment and get in the water supply. The extra oxygen atom oxidizes the contaminant and the O3 becomes O2—just plain old oxygen.
April 28, 2021 0 Comments
It was shown that after 30 seconds of in vitro direct exposure to ozone, 99 percent of the viruses are inactivated. Although this evidence is of considerable importance, outside of the laboratory models, there are various parameters that influence the time required to obtain the same result. First of all, it was seen that the inactivation of 99% of viruses by ozonation requires its spread at concentrations higher than those necessary for the bacteria. A longer exposure time, about 30 minutes, is necessary for the treatment of the surfaces of the environment (surface viruses), while for any viral particles suspended in the air (airborne viruses) 8-10 minutes are enough to remove 99.9% of them. Viruses in water are more susceptible to ozone inactivation and short contact time, about 1 min or little more, are sufficient to inactivate 99% of them.
April 27, 2021 0 Comments
A positive displacement pump moves a fluid by repeatedly enclosing a fixed volume, with the aid of seals or valves, and moving it mechanically through the system. The pumping action is cyclic and can be driven by pistons, screws, gears, lobes, diaphragms or vanes. There are two main types: reciprocating and rotary.Positive displacement pumps are preferred for applications involving highly viscous fluids such as thick oils and slurries, especially at high pressures, for complex feeds such as emulsions, foodstuffs or biological fluids, and also when accurate dosing is required.